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Venus Rising From the Sea---A Deception

Venus Rising From the Sea---A Deception

Artist: Raphaelle Peale (1774-1825)

Venus Rising From the Sea---A Deception

Date: ca. 1822
Medium: Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Unframed: 29 1/8 x 24 1/8 inches (73.98 x 61.28 cm)
Framed: 38 x 33 x 2 3/4 inches (96.52 x 83.82 x 6.99 cm)
Credit Line: Purchase: William Rockhill Nelson Trust
Object number: 34-147
On view
Current Location:G, 211
DescriptionStill-life painting of a white towel pinned to a clothesline; only the arms and feet of the figure behind the towel are visible.
Exhibition History

Eleventh Annual Exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, May 14–June 1822, no. 302.

 

First Annual Exhibition of Sculpture, Paintings, Drawings, Engravings &c, Peale’s Baltimore Museum, October 1–November 9, 1822, no. 120 (as Venus Rising from the Sea).

 

First Exhibition of Paintings in the Athenaeum Gallery: Consisting of Specimens by American Artists, and a Selection of the Works of the Old Masters, Boston Athenaeum Gallery, May 10, 1827–unknown date, no. 25 (as The Birth of Venus).

 

American Ancestors: Masterpieces by Little Known and Anonymous American Painters 1790–1890, Downtown Gallery, New York, December 14–31, 1931, no. 10 (as After the Bath—New England).

 

American Folk Art, Painting, and Sculpture, Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts, February 22–March 18, 1932, no. 3 (as After the Bath—New England).

 

Centennial Exhibition, Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, N.Y., July 1–August 1, 1932, no. 42 (as After the Bath).

 

American Painting and Sculpture of the 18th, 19th & 20th Centuries, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn., January 29–February 19, 1935, no. 29 (as After the Bath).

 

Survey of American Painting, Smith College, Northampton, Mass., June 1–23, 1936, no cat.

 

The Painters of Still Life, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn., January 25–February 15, 1938, no. 86 (as After the Bath).

 

Trois Siècles d’Art aux États-Unis, Jeu de Paume, Paris, in collaboration with Museum of Modern Art, New York, May 15–July 15, 1938, no. 130 (as Après le Bain [After the Bath]).

 

Survey of American Painting, Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, October 24–December 15, 1940, no. 67 (as After the Bath).

 

Painting Today and Yesterday in the United States, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Calif., June 5–September 1, 1941, no. 91 (as After the Bath).

 

American Realists and Magic Realists, Museum of Modern Art, New York, February 10, 1943–January 29, 1944 (traveled), no. 14 (as After the Bath).

 

An Exhibition of Paintings: John Trumbull and His Contemporaries, Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, Conn., March 6–April 16, 1944, no. 99 (as After the Bath).

 

Loan Exhibition, a Selection of Outstanding Paintings and Sculptures by Leading Exponents of Progressive American Art and a Group of 19th Century Art, Downtown Gallery, New York, October 15–December 1, 1945, no. 29 (as After the Bath).

 

An Exhibition of American Painting from Colonial Times until Today, Saginaw Art Museum, Mich., January 10–February 15, 1948, no. 44 (as After the Bath).

 

American Heritage: An Exhibition of Paintings and Crafts, Denver Art Museum, March 7–April 11, 1948, no. 19 (as After the Bath).

 

Landmarks in American Art, 1670–1950, Wildenstein & Company, New York, February 26–March 28, 1953, no. 11 (as After the Bath).

 

Paintings by the Peale Family, Cincinnati Art Museum, October 1–31, 1954, no. 63 (as After the Bath).

 

Centennial Exhibition: Pennsylvania Painters, Pennsylvania State University, Mineral Industries Gallery, University Park, October 7–November 6, 1955, no. 10 (as After the Bath).

 

Painting in America: The Story of 450 Years, Detroit Institute of Arts, April 23–September 1957 (traveled), no. 60 (as After the Bath).

 

The American Vision: Paintings of Three Centuries, American Federation of Arts and Wildenstein & Company, New York, October 23–November 16, 1957, no. 5 (as After the Bath).

 

Still Life Paintings—from the XVI Century to the Present, Atlanta Art Association Galleries, Ga., January 10–29, 1958, unnumbered (as After the Bath).

 

Famous Paintings and Famous Painters, Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, October 4 –November 2, 1958, no. 1 (as After the Bath).

 

Raphaelle Peale, 1774–1825, Still Lifes and Portraits, Milwaukee Art Center, Wisc., January 15–February 15, 1959; M. Knoedler & Company, New York, March 2–March 31, 1959, no. 10 (as After the Bath).

 

The American Muse: Parallel Trends in Literature and Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., April 4–May 17, 1959, no. 2 (as After the Bath).

 

200 Years of American Painting, City Museum of Saint Louis, April 1–May 31, 1964, unnumbered.

 

Past and Present, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., April 1–July 1, 1966, no cat.

 

Art of the United States: 1670–1966, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, September 28–November 27, 1966, no. 213 (as After the Bath).

 

The Peale Family: Three Generations of American Artists, Detroit Institute of Arts and Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, N.Y., January 18–May 7, 1967 (traveled), no. 124 (as After the Bath).

 

19th-Century America: Paintings and Sculpture, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, April 16–September 7, 1970, no. 23 (as After the Bath).

 

Nineteenth Century American Painting, William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Mo., February 17–March 31, 1974, no cat.

 

Philadelphia: Three Centuries of American Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, April 11–October 10, 1976, no. 214 (as After the Bath).

 

Kaleidoscope of American Painting: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Mo., December 2, 1977–January 22, 1978, no. 80.

 

Painters of the Humble Truth: Masterpieces of American Still Life, 1801–1939, Philbrook Art Center, Tulsa, Okla., September 27, 1981–July 4, 1982 (Philbrook Art Center, Tulsa, Okla., only), no. 106.

 

A New World: Masterpieces of American Painting, 1760–1910, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, September 7–November 13, 1983; The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., December 7, 1983–February 12, 1984; Grand Palais, Paris, March 16–June 11, 1984, no. 13.

 

Raphaelle Peale Still Lifes, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., October 16, 1988–January 29, 1989; Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, February 16–April 16, 1989, no. 37.

 

Made in America: Ten Centuries of American Art, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, February, 5–May 5, 1995; Saint Louis Art Museum, June 14–September 4, 1995; Toledo Museum of Art, October 13, 1995–January 7, 1996; Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Mo., March 17–May 19, 1996; Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, July 6–September 22, 1996, unnumbered.

 

The Peale Family: Creation of an American Legacy 1770–1870, Trust for Museum Exhibitions, Washington, D.C., November 3, 1996–July 6, 1997 (Philadelphia Museum of Art only), no. 51.

 

America: Die neue Welt in Bildern des 19. Jahrhunderts, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, Austria, March 17–June 20, 1999, no. 16 (as Venus, dem Meer entsteigend— Eine Täuschung).

 

Deceptions and Illusions: Five Centuries of Trompe l’Oeil Painting, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., October 13, 2002–March 2, 2003, no. 12.

 

Audubon to Warhol: The Art of American Still Life, Philadelphia Museum of Art, October 27, 2015–January 10, 2016, unnumbered.
Gallery Label

Raphaelle Peale

American, 1774–1825

Venus Rising from the Sea—A Deception, ca. 1822

Oil on canvas

In Venus Rising from the Sea, Raphaelle Peale created the illusion of a cloth hiding a bathing woman. Technical examination, however, reveals that her body does not continue underneath the linen. The visible figural elements add to the deception. They were derived not from life, but from a print of an earlier canvas by the Englishman James Barry.

Peale's deception draws on the ancient Roman author Pliny's account of a competition between two Greeks to determine the better artist. While Zeuxis painted grapes so convincingly that birds pecked at them, Parrhasios painted a curtain so realistically that it tricked his fellow artist. Peale's design also alludes to the contemporary practice of covering paintings of nudes, one that he deemed ridiculous though his father Charles Willson Peale found it prudent.

Provenance To William Gilmor Esq., Baltimore, Md., 1822;

 

Peale’s Museum, New York, by 1825;

 

probably to P. T. Barnum, Bridgeport, Conn., 1843;

 

(William A. Gough, Bridgeport, Conn., by 1931);

 

to (American Folk Art Gallery with Downtown Gallery, New York, by 1931);

 

to The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, 1934.
Published References Eleventh Annual Exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, exh. cat. (Philadelphia: Hickman & Hazzard, 1822), 13.


Catalogue of the Paintings (New York: Peale’s New-York Museum and Gallery of the Fine Arts, c. 1825), 7 (as Still Life—A Deception—Venus Rising From a Bath).


Catalogue of the First Exhibition of Paintings in the Athenaeum Gallery: Consisting of Specimens by American Artists, and a Selection of the Works of the Old Masters, exh. cat. (Boston: William W. Clapp, 1827), 1 (as The Birth of Venus).

 

Henry McBride, “American Primitives,” New York Sun, [November 1931], clipping, NAMA curatorial files.

 

“Rare Canvas by Son of Charles W. Peale to Be Shown Here,” New York Herald Tribune, December 10, 1931, 27 (as After the Bath).

 

“Gallery Finds Rare Canvas by Raphael [sic] Peale,” Springfield (Mass.) News, December 10, 1931, 9 (as After the Bath).

 

 “Very Rare Peale Canvas Is Found,” Springfield (Mass.) Daily Republican, December 11, 1931, 8 (as After the Bath).

 

“‘American Ancestors’ at Downtown Gallery,” Springfield (Mass.) Sunday Union and Republican, December 13, 1931, 6E (as After the Bath—New England).

 

“Hicks Called Greatest in America by Léger,” Art Digest 6 (December 15, 1931), 13 (as After the Bath).

 

Ruth Seinfel, “Modern Art Finds Maidenly Ancestors,” New York Evening Post, December 18, 1931, 8 (as After the Bath).

 

“Exhibitions in New York,” American Art News 30 (December 19, 1931), 10 (as After the Bath—New England).

 

“American Primitives in Review: Folk-Art Puts on One Exhibition That Proves Art Here Has an Ancestry,” New York Sun, December 19, 1931, 11 (as After the Bath).

 

Edward Alden Jewell, “In the Realm of Art: Prints and ‘Primitives,’” New York Times, December 20, 1931, X10 (as After the Bath).

 

Malcolm Vaughan, “First Large New York Show of Native American Paintings,” New York American, December 20, 1931, M5 (as After the Bath).

 

Lillian Semons, “Young People and Indians Liven the Art Galleries,” Brooklyn Times, December 20, 1931, 7A (as After the Bath—New England).

 

Rose Mary Risk, “Roots of American Art Yield but Thin Drip of ‘Sap’ Today,” Chicago Evening Post, December 22, 1931, 9 (as After the Bath).

 

Murdock Pemberton, “The Art Galleries,” New Yorker, December 26, 1931, 48 (as After the Bath—New England).

“Painted but 3 Pictures in Life: One of Them in ‘Ancestor’ Show,” December 1931, clipping, NAMA curatorial files (as After the Bath—New England).

 

American Ancestors: Masterpieces by Little Known and Anonymous American Painters, 1790–1890, exh. cat. (New York: Downtown Gallery, 1931), unpaginated (as After the Bath—New England).

 

Virginia Nirdlinger, “In the New York Galleries,” Parnassus 4 (January 1932), 40 (as After the Bath).

 

Elisabeth Luther Cary, “Art Trends: The Years Between,” New York Times, January 31, 1932, X13.

 

Holger Cahill, “American Folk-Art,” Formes: An International Art Review 23 (March 1932), unpaginated (as Après le bain and After the Bath).

 

A Catalogue of the First Exhibition in the New Galleries of the Society of Arts and Crafts of American Folk Art, Painting, and Sculpture, exh. cat. (Detroit: Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts, 1932), 3 (as After the Bath—New England).

 

Centennial Exhibition, exh. cat. (Buffalo, N.Y.: Albright Art Gallery, 1932), 8 (as After the Bath).

 

Holger Cahill, “American Art Today,” in America as Americans See It, ed. Fred J. Ringel (New York: Literary Guild, 1932), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Advertisement, Art News 32 (9 December 1933), 92 (as After the Bath).

 

Downtown Gallery Records, 1924–74, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, microfilm reel 5559, frames 828–29, 831–32 (as After the Bath), microfilm reel 5611, frame 867 (as After the Bath).

 

“A Better View of Art,” Kansas City Times, January 8, 1934, 8 (as After the Bath).

 

Virgil Barker, “The Painting of the Middle Range,” American Magazine of Art 27 (May 1934), 236 (as After the Bath).

 

T. H. Parker, “Art Exhibit Opens Here,” Hartford (Conn.) Courant, January 30, 1935, clipping, NAMA curatorial files.

 

“Native Painting, Sculpture at Hartford till the 19th,” Springfield (Mass.) Sunday Union and Republican, February 10, 1935, 6E (as After the Bath).

 

“In Gallery and Studio,” Kansas City Star, March 22, 1935, E1 (as After the Bath).

 

American Painting and Sculpture of the 18th, 19th & 20th Centuries, exh. cat. (Hartford, Conn.: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1935), 21 (as After the Bath).

 

Holger Cahill and Alfred H. Barr Jr., eds., Art in America: A Complete Survey (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1935), 30 (as After the Bath).

 

James Thrall Soby, After Picasso (Hartford, Conn.: Edwin Valentine Mitchell; New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1935), 103, pl. 54 (as After the Bath).

 

Alan Burroughs, Limners and Likenesses: Three Centuries of American Painting (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936), 113 (as After the Bath).

 

“Parker Reviews Development of Still Life Art,” Hartford (Conn.) Courant, January 29, 1938, 7 (as After the Bath).

 

“In Gallery and Studio,” Kansas City Star, February 4, 1938, 20 (as After the Bath).

 

A. Everett Austin Jr. and Henry-Russell Hitchcock Jr., “Aesthetic of the Still Life over Four Centuries: ‘Dead Nature,’Caravaggio to Picasso, at Hartford,” Art News 36 (February 5, 1938), 12 (as After the Bath).

 

A. Conger Goodyear, “All Good Americans,” Parnassus 10 (April 1938), 16 (as After the Bath).

 

“Americans in Paris,” Art Digest 12 (May 1, 1938), 23 (as After the Bath).

 

Robert Gavelle, “Aspects du Trompe-l’Oeil,” L’Amour de l’Art 19 (July 1938), 235 (as Après le bain).

 

“French Critics Turn ‘Thumbs Down’ on Contemporary American Painting,” Art Digest 12 (August 1, 1938), 8 (as After the Bath).

 

Lo Duca, “Chronache Parigine,” Emporium (Bergamo) 88 (August 1938), 111 (as Dopo il Bagno).

 

“Americans at Home ‘Where They Belong,’” Art Digest 13 (October 15, 1938), 12 (as After the Bath).

“Art Instruction in the Classroom,” Art Instruction 2 (November 1938), 32 (as Oil Painting of Drapery).

 

News Flashes (William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) 5 (1 December 1938), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Lo Duca, “Esiste un’Arte Americana? Primitivi del 1700 e del 1937 Appropriazioni Indebite—Dall’Impressionismo al Futurismo—U.S.A.,” clipping, NAMA curatorial files.

 

The Painters of Still Life, exh. cat. (Hartford, Conn.: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1938), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Alfred H. Barr Jr., Trois Siècles d’Art aux États-Unis, exh. cat. (Paris: Éditions des Musées Nationaux, 1938), 21, 43, fig. 6 (as Après le bain [After the Bath]).

 

Survey of American Painting, exh. cat. (Pittsburgh: Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, 1940), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

A. M., “Channel City Show Surveys Growth of Nation’s Art,” Los Angeles Times, June 8, 1941, C8 (as After the Bath).

 

Donald Jeffries Bear, “Santa Barbara Outlines U.S. Art History,” Art Digest 15 (June 1941), 11 (as After the Bath).

 

H[enry] C. H[askell], “The Nelson Gallery Displays Its Most Published Pictures,” Kansas City Star, 5 December 1941, 19 (as The Bath).

 

Gallery Events (William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts) 8 (December 1941), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Painting Today and Yesterday in the United States, exh. cat. (Santa Barbara, Calif.: Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1941), 16, pl. 5 (as After the Bath).

 

The William Rockhill Nelson Collection, 2nd ed. (Kansas City, Mo.: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1941), 149, 155, 166 (as After the Bath).

 

Art Digest 17 (February 15, 1943), cover (repro.).

 

M. R., “Americans 1943: Realism and Magic Realism,” Art Digest (February 15, 1943), 27 (as After the Bath).

 

Doris Brian, “Is the Sharp Focus Clear?” Art News 42 (March 1, 1943), 19 (as After the Bath).

 

“American Realists and Magic Realists,” Gallery Notes (Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Albright Art Gallery) 10 (May 1943), 13 (as After the Bath).

 

“Magic Realist Artists Draw on Imagination,” Toronto Evening Telegram, November 6, 1943, 35 (as After the Bath).

 

Dorothy C. Miller and Alfred H. Barr Jr., eds., American Realists and Magic Realists, exh. cat. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1943), 9–10, 63 (as After the Bath).

 

John Walker and Macgill James, Great American Painting from Smibert to Bellows, 1729–1924 (London: Oxford University Press, 1943), 7, 24, pl. 29 (as After the Bath).

 

An Exhibition of Paintings: John Trumbull and His Contemporaries, exh. cat. (New London, Conn.: Lyman Allyn Museum, 1944), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Edgar Preston Richardson, American Romantic Painting (New York: E. Weyhe, 1944), fig. 9 (as After the Bath).

Ben Wolf, “Edith Halpert, Art Crusader, Marks Two Decades of Success,” Art Digest 20 (October 15, 1945), 10 (as After the Bath).

 

A[line] B. L[ouchheim], “Showing a 20-Year American Record,” Art News 44 (October 15–31, 1945), 26 (as After the Bath).

 

Loan Exhibition, a Selection of Outstanding Paintings and Sculptures by Leading Exponents of Progressive American Art and a Group of 19th Century Art, exh. cat. (New York: Downtown Gallery, 1945), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Wolfgang Born, Still Life Painting in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), 14, pl. 28 (as After the Bath).

 

Charles Coleman Sellers, Charles Willson Peale, vol. 2, Later Life, 1790–1827 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1947), 390 (as After the Bath).

 

“City’s Newest Institution Huge Success, 73 Prize Paintings Will Be on Display for Next 37 Days,” Saginaw (Mich.) News, January 10, 1948, 1 (as After the Bath).

 

“Art Timetable of the New World,” Art News Annual 18 (1948), 34 (as After the Bath).

 

An Exhibition of American Painting from Colonial Times until Today, exh. cat. (Saginaw, Mich.: Saginaw Museum, 1948), 19 (as After the Bath).

 

American Heritage: An Exhibition of Paintings and Crafts, exh. cat. (Denver: Denver Art Museum, 1948), 24 (as After the Bath).

 

Margaret Mead, “Reality and the American Dream,” Vogue, February 1949, 180 (as After the Bath).

 

Oliver W. Larkin, Art and Life in America (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1949), 134–35.

 

The William Rockhill Nelson Collection, 3rd. ed. (Kansas City, Mo.: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1949), 201 (as After the Bath).

 

Virgil Barker, American Painting: History and Interpretation (New York: Macmillan Company, 1950), 311 (as After the Bath).

 

Charles Poore, “Books of the Time,” New York Times, July 5, 1951, 23.

 

Germain Bazin, History of Classic Painting (New York: Hyperion Press, 1951), 304 (as After the Bath).

 

Charles Sterling, La Nature Morte: De l’Antiquité à Nos Jours (Paris: Éditions Pierre Tisné, 1952), 79, 117, pl. 81 (as Serviette de Bain).

 

“After the Bath,” Flair Annual (New York: Cowles Magazine, 1952), 190 (as After the Bath).

 

Howard Devree, “Both New and Old: Water-Colorists—American Landmarks—Diverse One-Man Shows of Painting,” New York Times, March 1, 1953, X8 (as After the Bath).

 

James Fitzsimmons, “Art,” Arts and Architecture 70 (April 1953), 34.

 

John I. H. Baur, Landmarks in American Art, 1670–1950, exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein & Company, 1953), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Alfred Frankenstein, After the Hunt: William Harnett and Other American Still Life Painters, 1870–1900 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1953), 32 (as After the Bath).

 

Charles Coleman Sellers, “The Peale Family: A Tradition of Freedom and Affability in Art,” Art Digest 29 (October 15, 1954), 29 (as After the Bath).

 

Mary L. Alexander, “In the Exhibition,” Cincinnati Enquirer, October 17, 1954, 31 (as After the Bath).

 

Otto Wittman Jr., “An Exhibition of Painting by the Peale Family, Cincinnati Art Museum, October 1–31, 1954,” Art Quarterly 17 (Winter 1954), 392, 395 (as After the Bath).

 

Paintings by the Peale Family, exh. cat. (Cincinnati: Cincinnati Art Museum, 1954), 22, 28 (as After the Bath).

 

Frank J. Roos Jr., An Illustrated Handbook of Art History, rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan Company, 1954), 251 (as After the Bath).

 

Oliver Jensen, “The Peales,” American Heritage 6 (April 1955), 50, 97.

 

Harold E. Dickson, Centennial Exhibition: Pennsylvania Painters, exh. cat. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1955), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Anna Wells Rutledge, ed., Cumulative Record of Exhibition Catalogues: The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1807–1870; The Society of Artists, 1800–1814; The Artists’ Fund Society, 1835–1845 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1955), 166.

 

“The Silent Witness,” Time, December 24, 1956, 31.

 

Edgar Preston Richardson, Painting in America from 1502 to the Present (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1956), 131, fig. 73 (as After the Bath).

 

Virgil Barker, “Three Centuries of American Painting,” Arts 32 (November 1957), 38–39 (as After the Bath).

 

“Painting in America,” Art in America 45 (New Talent Annual 1957), 55 (as After the Bath).

 

Alexander Eliot, Three Hundred Years of American Painting (New York: Time, 1957), 27, 29 (as After the Bath).

 

H. W. Janson and Dora Jane Janson, Picture History of Painting from Cave Paintings to Modern Times (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1957), 238 (as After the Bath).

 

Edgar P. Richardson, Painting in America: The Story of 450 Years, exh. cat. (Detroit: Detroit Institute of Arts, 1957), 11 (as After the Bath).

The American Vision: Paintings of Three Centuries, exh. cat. (New York: Wildenstein & Company, 1957), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Still Life Paintings—from the XVI Century to the Present, exh. cat. (Atlanta: Atlanta Art Association, 1958), 3 (as After the Bath).

 

Famous Paintings and Famous Painters, exh. cat. (Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art, 1958), unpaginated.

 

Charles Coleman Sellers, Raphaelle Peale, 1774–1825, Still Lifes and Portraits, exh. cat. (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Art Center, 1959), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

The American Muse: Parallel Trends in Literature and Art, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: Corcoran Gallery of Art with Art in America, 1959), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Handbook of the Collections in the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 4th ed. (Kansas City, Mo.: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1959), 142, 257 (as After the Bath).

 

Frank J. Roos Jr., An Illustrated Handbook of Art History, rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan Company, 1960), 251 (as After the Bath).

 

Daniel M. Mendelowitz, A History of American Art (Chicago: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960), 276 (as After the Bath).

 

Oliver W. Larkin, Art and Life in America, rev. and enl. ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960), 134–
35 (as After the Bath).

 

William H. Pierson Jr. and Martha Davidson, eds., Arts of the United States: A Pictorial Survey (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1960), 320 (as After the Bath).

 

Henri Dorra, The American Muse (New York: Viking Press, 1961), 18 (as After the Bath).

 

“Art in America—Four Centuries of Painting and Sculpture: A Show Proposed for the New York World’s Fair,” Art in America 50 (Fall 1962), 46 (as After the Bath).

 

Everard Upjohn and John P. Sedgwick Jr., Highlights: An Illustrated History of Art (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963), 283 (as After the Bath).

 

John Pearce, American Painting: 1560–1913 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964), 16–17 (as After the Bath).

 

“Two Hundred Years of American Painting,” St. Louis Museum Bulletin 48 (1964), 8 (as After the Bath).

 

Edgar Preston Richardson, Painting in America from 1502 to the Present (reprint, New York: Thomas Y. Crow-
ell, 1965), 131, fig. 73 (as After the Bath).

 

Margaret Harold and Marie-Thérése Favreau, Nudes by the Masters (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.: Allied Publications, 1965), N15 (as After the Bath).

 

Lloyd Goodrich, “American Art and the Whitney Museum,” Antiques 90 (November 1966), 657 (as After the Bath).

 

“Comprehensive Peale Family Show,” Detroit Institute of Arts Exhibition Calendar, December 1966, unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Lloyd Goodrich, Art of the United States: 1670–1966, exh. cat. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, for Whitney Museum of American Art, 1966), 41, 152 (as After the Bath).

 

Hilton Kramer, “The Peales: Artists and Others,” New York Times, February 5, 1967, sec. 2, 27 (as After the Bath).

 

“Art Notes,” Kansas City Star, March 26, 1967, 6D (as After the Bath).

 

Ona Curran, “The Painting Peales,” Schenectady (N.Y.) Gazette, May 25, 1967, 41 (as After the Bath).


Charles W. Millard, “Some Thoughts on American Painting,” Hudson Review 20 (Summer 1967), 268 (as After the Bath).

 

Charles Elam, The Peale Family: Three Generations of American Artists, exh. cat. (Detroit: Detroit Institute of Arts and Wayne State University Press, 1967), 37, 95–96 (as After the Bath).

 

John Wilmer-ding, Pittura Americana dell’Ottocento (Milan: Fratelli Fabbri Editori, 1967), 35 (as Dopo il Bagno).

 

New International Illustrated Encyclopedia of Art (New York: Greystone Press, 1967), 15:3110–11 (as After the Bath).

 

Robert Morton, “Picking and Choosing in American Art,” Chicago Tribune, December 29, 1968, N4 (as After the Bath).

 

Richard McLanathan, The American Tradition in the Arts (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968), 348 (as After the Bath).

 

Harold E. Dickson, The Arts of the Young Republic: The Age of William Dunlap (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), 52, pl. 112 (as After the Bath).

 

Dorothy C. Miller and Alfred H. Barr Jr., eds., American Realists and Magic Realists, exh. cat. (reprint, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1969), 9–10, 63 (as After the Bath).

 

Alfred Frankenstein, After the Hunt: William Harnett and Other American Still Life Painters, 1870–1900 (rev. ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969), 32 (as After the Bath).

 

Wendell D. Garrett, Paul F. Norton, Alan Gowans, and Joseph T. Butler, The Arts in America: The Nineteenth Century (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1969), 190 (as After the Bath).

 

Jules Prown, American Painting from Its Beginnings to the Armory Show (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1969), 103–4 (as After the Bath).

 

Robert Myron, Art in America from Colonial Days through the Nineteenth Century (London: Collier-Macmillan, 1969), 54 (as After the Bath).

 

Charles Coleman Sellers, Charles Willson Peale (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1969), 420–21, 482n5 (as After the Bath).

 

Léo Bronstein, Five Variations on the Theme of Japanese Painting (Freeport, Me.: Bond Wheelwright Company, 1969), 217–18 (as After the Bath).

 

Joseph Kaye, “Centennial for Museum,” Kansas City Times, April 13, 1970, 8 (as After the Bath).

 

Katharine Kuh, “Panorama of Nineteenth-Century America,” Saturday Review 53 (May 30, 1970), 43–44 (as After the Bath).

 

Lillian Freedgood, An Enduring Image: American Painting from 1665 (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1970), 41–42 (as After the Bath).

 

John K. Howat and Natalie Spassky, 19th-Century America: Paintings and Sculpture, exh. cat. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Frank J. Roos Jr., An Illustrated Handbook of Art History, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan Company; Toronto: Collier-Macmillan Canada, 1970), 288 (as After the Bath).

Russell Lynes, The Art Makers of Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Atheneum, 1970), xi, 378–79 (as After the Bath).

 

Donald L. Weismann, The Visual Arts as Human Experience (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1970), 33–34, pl. 11 (as After the Bath).

 

Daniel M. Mendelowitz, A History of American Art, 2nd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970), 188 (as After the Bath).

 

Matthew Baigell, A History of American Painting (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971), 102–3, 280 (as After the Bath).

William H. Gerdts and Russell Burke, American Still-Life Painting (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971), 30–31, 53, 238n7 (as After the Bath).

 

The Vincent Price Treasury of American Art (Waukesha, Wisc.: Country Beautiful Corporation, 1972), 5, 62–63 (as After the Bath).

 

Harold Rosenberg, The De-Definition of Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972), 17 (as After the Bath).

 

Wolfgang Born, Still Life Painting in America (New York: Hacker Art Books, 1973), xii, 14, fig. 28 (as After the Bath).

 

John Wilmerding, ed., The Genius of American Painting (New York: William Morrow & Company, 1973), 96 (as After the Bath).

 

Ian Bennett, A History of American Painting (London: Hamlyn, 1973), 40–41 (as After the Bath).

 

Marshall B. Davidson, The American Heritage History of the Artists’ America (New York: American Heritage Publishing Company, 1973), 92–93 (as After the Bath).

 

Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation, 1973), 415–16 (as After the Bath).

 

Ross E. Taggart and George L. McKenna, eds., Handbook of the Collections in The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Missouri, vol. 1, Art of the Occident, 5th ed. (Kansas City, MO: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1973), 172, 254 (as After the Bath).

 

“Benefit to Show American Painting,” Kansas City Times, February 26, 1974, 11 (as After the Bath).

 

William H. Gerdts, The Great American Nude: A History in Art (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1974), 45 (as After the Bath).

 

Ray Ginger, People on the Move: A United States History (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1975), 346–47 (as After the Bath).

 

M. L. d’Otrange Mastai, Illusion in Art: Trompe l’Oeil, a History of Pictorial Illusionism (New York: Abaris Books, 1975), 268–71 (as After the Bath).

 

James A. Schinneller, Art: Search and Self-Discovery (Worcester, Mass.: Davis Publications, 1975), 20 (as After the Bath).

 

Daniel Catton Rich, ed., The Flow of Art: Essays and Criticisms of Henry McBride (New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1975), 283.

 

Stuart Preston, “The Confident Culture of Philadelphia,” Apollo 104 (September 1976), 204 (as After the Bath).

 

Sylvia Hochfield, “Philadelphia: Tradition and Renewal,” Art News 75 (Summer 1976), 139 (as After the Bath).

 

Darrel Sewell et al., Philadelphia: Three Centuries of American Art, exh. cat. (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1976), 256–57 (as After the Bath).

John Wilmer ding, American Art (New York: Penguin Books, 1976), 59, pl. 63 (as After the Bath).

 

Jean Lipman and Helen M. Franc, Bright Stars: American Painting and Sculpture since 1776 (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1976), 41 (as After the Bath).

 

Donald Hoffmann, “Images from a New Land,” Kansas City Star, December 11, 1977, 1D (as After the Bath).

 

Milton Brown, American Art to 1900: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977), 209, pl. 27 (as After the Bath).

 

John Walker, Jules David Prown, and Barbara Rose, American Painting from the Colonial Period to the Present (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1977), 99–100 (as After the Bath).

 

Kaleidoscope of American Painting: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. exh. cat. (Kansas City, Mo.: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1977), 67.

 

Florence Margaret Daniels, Why Art? (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1978), 7 (as After the Bath).

 

Susan Fillin Yeh, “Charles Sheeler’s ‘Upper Deck,’” Arts 53 (January 1979), 90 (as After the Bath).

 

“Gallery Treasure,” Kansas City Star, July 8, 1979, 2D (as After the Bath).

 

Milton W. Brown, Sam Hunter, John Jacobus, Naomi Rosenblum, and David M. Sokol, American Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Decorative Arts, Photography (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1979), 149–50 (as After the Bath).

 

Célestine Dars, Images of Deception: The Art of Trompe-l’Oeil (Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1979), 5, 59 (as After the Bath).

 

Joshua C. Taylor, Fine Arts in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 76 (as After the Bath).

 

John Walker and Jules David Prown, American Painting from Its Beginnings to the Armory Show (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1980), 8, 103–4 (as After the Bath).

 

David Housh, “Philbrook’s Still Life Exhibit ‘Magnificent,’” Tulsa World, 27 September 1981, B9 (as After the Bath).

 

Roger B. Stein, “Charles Willson Peale’s Expressive Design: The Artist in His Museum,” Prospects: The Annual of American Cultural Studies 6 (1981), 174–75 (as After the Bath).

 

William H. Gerdts, Painters of the Humble Truth: Masterpieces of American Still Life, 1801–1939, exh. cat. (Columbia: Philbrook Art Center with University of Missouri Press, 1981), 53–55, 60, 264 (as After the Bath).

 

Painters of the Humble Truth: A Catalogue of the Exhibition, exh. checklist (Tulsa: Philbrook Art Center, 1981), unpaginated (as After the Bath).

 

Linda Ann Hughes, ed., Echoes and Images (Quincy, Ill.: Looking Glass Publications, 1981), 1:44 (as After the Bath).

 

Dorinda Evans, “Raphaelle Peale’s Venus Rising from the Sea: Further Support for a Change in Interpretation,” American Art Journal 14 (Summer 1982), 62–63, 65, 67, 69, 72.

 

Ross E. Taggart, “American Paintings in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri,” Antiques 122
(November 1982), 1029, 1031–32 (as After the Bath).

 

Bill Marvel, “How Good Is the Nelson?” Kansas City Star Magazine, April 24, 1983, 23 (as After the Bath).

 

Robert Taylor, “Painting the American Dream,” Boston Globe Magazine, September 4, 1983, 21 (as After the Bath).

 

Judd Tully, “Old Masters, New Masters,” Horizon 26 (September 1983), 60–61.

 

Theodore E. Stebbins Jr., “American Masterpieces,” Portfolio 5 (September–October 1983), 51, 54.

Pamela Kessler, “An All-Great, All-American Art Show,” Washington Post, December 9, 1983, A1.

 

Theodore E. Stebbins Jr., Carol Troyen, and Trevor J. Fairbrother, A New World: Masterpieces of American Painting, 1760–1910, exh. cat. (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1983), 35, 49, 208–9.

 

William L. Pressly, James Barry: The Artist Hero (London: Tate Gallery Publications Department, 1983), 54–55.

 

A. G., “D’Autres Regards sur l’Amérique,” Connaissance des Arts, no. 385 (March 1984), 83 (as Vénus Sortant de l’Onde Deception).

 

Leonard Everett Fisher, Masterpieces of American Painting (New York: Exeter Books, 1985), 50–51 (as After the Bath).

 

William H. Gerdts, “A Deception Unmasked: An Artist Uncovered,” American Art Journal 18 (1986), 7–8, 10, 12, 23n6 (as After the Bath).

 

James L. Yarnall and William H. Gerdts, The National Museum of American Art’s Index to American Art Exhibition Catalogues from the Beginning through the 1876 Centennial Year (Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1986), 4:2731.

 

H. H. Arnason, History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography, 3rd ed. (New York: Abrams, 1986), 418 (as After the Bath).

 

Museum & Arts Washington 4 (September–October 1988), 1, cover.

 

Robert Merritt, “Washington’s Smaller Exhibits Deserve Attention,” Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch, October 30, 1988, J3 (as After the Bath).

 

Phoebe Lloyd, “Philadelphia Story,” Art in America 76 (November 1988), 164–66, 171, 201nn32, 34, and 38.

Nicolai Cikovsky Jr., “The Still Lifes of Raphaelle Peale,” Antiques 134 (November 1988), 1128, 1130–31.

 

Nicolai Cikovsky Jr., Linda Bantel, and John Wilmerding, Raphaelle Peale Still Lifes, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1988), 44, 48–49, 70nn44–45, 129.

 

Peter Hastings Falk, ed., The Annual Exhibition Record of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1807–1870, Being a Reprint with Revisions of the 1955 Edition of Anna Wells Rutledge’s Cumulative Record of Exhibition Catalogues, Incorporating the Society of Artists, 1810–1814, and the Artists’ Fund Society, 1835–1845 (Madison, Conn.: Sound View Press, 1988), 166.

 

Ellen R. Goheen, The Collections of the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (New York: Harry N. Abrams, in association with Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1988), 115–16, 119, 122 (as After the Bath).

 

“Exhibition of Art by Raphaelle Peale Slated at Academy,” Daily News (Huntingdon, Pa.), January 12, 1989, 9 (as After the Bath).

 

“Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Presents Raphaelle Peale,” Bucks-Mont Courier (Harleysville, Pa.), January 16, 1989, clipping, NAMA curatorial files (as After the Bath).

 

Edward J. Sozanksi, “The American Pioneer of Still-Life Painting,” Philadelphia Inquirer, February 19, 1989, 1L, 6L (as Venus Rising from the Sea [After the Bath]).

Carol Troyen, “Philadelphia: Raphaelle Peale Still Lifes,” Burlington Magazine 131 (February 1989), 178–79.

 

Walter Garver, “‘Dress Up’ Your Paintings,” Artist’s Magazine 6 (November 1989), 54–55.

William L. Vance, America’s Rome, vol. 1, Classical Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), 220–22, 235, 278.

 

The Detective’s Eye: Investigating the Old Masters, exh. cat. (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Art Museum, 1989), 108.

 

Diane Tepfer, “Edith Halpert and the Downtown Gallery, 1926–1940: A Study in Art Patronage,” Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1989, xi (as After the Bath), 163 (as After the Bath—New England), 165–66, 183n8, 222–23 (as After the Bath).

 

Ann Uhry Abrams, “Book Reviews: Nicolai Cikovsky Jr. Raphaelle Peale Still Lifes,” Winterthur Portfolio 25 (Spring 1990), 82, 82n1.

 

Laura Caruso, “Nelson Gallery Gets a Still Life by Peto,” Kansas City Star, August 19, 1990, I8 (as After the Bath).

 

Henry Adams, “Family Heirloom Enters the Museum,” Calendar (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art), May 1991, 2 (as After the Bath).

 

Henry Adams, Handbook of American Paintings in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Kansas City, Mo.: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1991), 4, 19, 52–54.


Lillian B. Miller and David C. Ward, introduction to New Perspectives on Charles Willson Peale: A 250th Anniversary Celebration, ed. Lillian B. Miller and David C. Ward (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press for Smithsonian Institution, 1991), 8.


Roger B. Stein, “Charles Willson Peale’s Expressive Design: The Artist in His Museum,” in New Perspectives on Charles Willson Peale: A 250th Anniversary Celebration, ed. Lillian B. Miller and David C. Ward (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press for Smithsonian Institution, 1991), 205–7, fig. 76.

 

Henry Adams, “Will the Real William Harnett Please Stand Up,” Smithsonian 22 (March 1992), 55–56.

 

Alice Thorson, “Eden’s Great Bounty: Nelson Buys Still Life of American Abundance,” Kansas City Star, 26 November 1992, G10 (as After the Bath).

 

Margaret C. Conrads, “Masterful American Still Life Joins Collection,” Calendar (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art),
November 1992, 2.

 

William M. Harnett, exh. cat. (Fort Worth: Amon Carter Museum; New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art and Harry N. Abrams, 1992), 20–22, 27nn4 and 6, 102.

 

Phoebe Lloyd and Gordon Ben dersky, “Arsenic, an Old Case: The Chronic Heavy Metal Poisoning of Raphaelle Peale (1774–1825),” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36 (Summer 1993), 661.

 

Lillian B. Miller, “Father and Son: The Relationship of Charles Willson Peale and Raphaelle Peale,” American Art Journal 25 (1993), 22, 25, 36, 47, 57n63, 60n104.

 

Kristie C. Wolferman, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art: Culture Comes to Kansas City (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1993), 171 (as After the Bath).

 

Roger Ward and Patricia J. Fidler, eds. The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art: A Handbook of the Collections. 6th ed. (New York: Hudson Hills Press, in association with Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1993), 228, 233.

 

Michael Churchman and Scott Erbes, High Ideals and Aspirations: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art 1933–1993 (Kansas City, Mo.: Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1993), 53.

 

David C. Ward and Sidney Hart, “Subversion and Illusion in the Life and Art of Raphaelle Peale,” American Art 8 (Summer/Fall 1994), 116–19, 121n41.

 

Phoebe Lloyd, “Invisible Killers: Heavy Metals, Saturnine Envy, and the Tragic Death of Raphaelle Peale,” Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, ser. 5, 16 (December 1994), 94–95.

 

Françoise de Bonneville, The Book of Fine Linen, trans. Deke Dusinberre (Paris: Flammarion, 1994), 70–71, 208.

 

Wayne Craven, American Art: History and Culture (New York: Harry N. Abrams; Madison, Wisc.: WCB Brown & Benchmark Publishers, 1994), 154.

 

Allison Eckardt Ledes, “Current and Coming: A Thousand Years of American Art,” Antiques 147 (February 1995), 250.

Phoebe Lloyd, “‘Peale’s Pistols’: An Attribution to Raphaelle,” Maryland Historical Magazine 90 (Spring 1995), 15.

 

M. Therese Southgate, “The Cover,” Journal of the American Medical Association 274 (23–30 August 1995), 591, cover.

 

Annie V. F. Storr, “Raphaelle Peale’s Strawberries, Nuts, &c.: A Riddle of Enlightened Science,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 21 (1995), 25–26, 73n1.

 

Michael Capek, Artistic Trickery: The Tradition of Trompe l’Oeil Art (Minneapolis: Lerner, 1995), 34–35.

 

Kathryn C. Johnson, ed., Made in America: Ten Centuries of American Art, exh. cat. (New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1995), 40.

 

“Art Exhibit Honors ‘Made in America,’” Olathe (Kans.) Daily News, March 16–17, 1996, 1C.

 

Alice Thorson, “Nelson Exhibition Gives the People What They Want,” Kansas City Star, March 17, 1996, I3.

 

Alice Thorson, “Nelson Art Exhibition Spans 1,000 Years—and All of It Was ‘Made in America,’” Kansas City Star, March 24, 1996, I3.

 

“Made in America at the Nelson-Atkins,” Calendar (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art), May 1996, 3.

 

Donald Miller, “Art in America,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 5, 1996, 20G.

 

Edward J. Sozanksi, “What’s ‘American’ Art? Museums Come Up with New Definitions,” Philadelphia Inquirer, July 14, 1996, F11.

 

Leonard W. Boasberg, “Trumpeting Those Peales,” Philadelphia Inquirer Weekend, November 1, 1996, 24 (as Venus Rising from the Sea).

 

Lillian B. Miller, ed., The Peale Family: Creation of an American Legacy, 1770–1870, exh. cat. (New York:Abbeville Press, in association with Trust for Museum Exhibitions and National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 1996), 90–91, 140, 286n19, 306.

 

Lillian B. Miller, ed., The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family, vol. 4, Charles Willson Peale: His Last Years, 1821–1827 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), 120n6, 121, 207, 207n2.


Richard Leppert, Art and the Committed Eye: The Cultural Functions of Imagery (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996), ix, 31–32, 279n18.

 

Therese Dolan, Inventing Reality: The Paintings of John Moore (New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1996), 18.

 

Sylvia Hochfield, “‘The Peale Family: Creation of a Legacy, 1770–1870,’” Art News 96 (March 1997), 117.

 

Stephan May, “The Peale Family,” American Arts Quarterly 14 (Winter 1997), 28.

 

Élisabeth Loir-Mongazon, Le Blanc, une Invention Choletaise? exh. cat. (Cholet: Musée du Textile, 1997), 39 (as Vénus Sortant de l’Onde).

 

Robert Hughes, American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America (New York: Knopf, 1997), 104–5.

 

Susan L. Feagin, “Presentation and Representation,” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (Summer 1998), 237–38, 239n15, 240n17 (as Venus Rising from the Sea).

Lance Lee Humphries, “Robert Gilmor Jr. (1774–1848): Baltimore Collector and American Art Patron,” Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1998, 1:311–13, 312n319, 313n324, 541.

 

Alice Thorson, “Art Notes: At the Nelson,” Kansas City Star, July 4, 1999, J8.

 

M. Therese Southgate, “The Cover,” Journal of the American Medical Association 282 (27 October 1999), 1502.

 

The American Art Book (London: Phaidon Press, 1999), 335.

 

Stephan Koja, ed., America: The New World in 19th-Century Painting, exh. cat. (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 32–33, 37–38, 40, 67, 286.

 

Style: On Technique—and More—in Fiction 34 (Spring 2000), cover.

 

Shift: New Works by Alison Watt, exh. cat. (Edinburgh: Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, 2000), 14.

 

Carol Eaton Soltis, “‘In Sympathy with the Heart’: Rembrandt Peale, an American Artist and the Traditions of European Art,” Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2000, x, xvii, 18, 28, 335, 339, 339nn121 and 123, 340, 340n124, 341, 341n128, 342, 342n131, 344–47, 347n144, 348, 348n146, 349, 519, 612.

 

Wendy Ann Bellion, “Likeness and Deception in Early American Art,” Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 2001, xi, 1–2, 3n3, 4n4, 44n37, 151n39, 240n86, 244n93, 253–54, 254n103, 273–74, 274n133, 275, 275n134, 276, 277n137, 279, 284–86, 286n155, 287, 287n159, 288, 288n160, 289, 289nn161–62, 290, 485.

 

Lance Humphries, “A Trompe l’Oeil for Peale’s Philadelphia Museum: Catalogue Deception and the Problem of Peale Family Attributions,” American Art Journal 32 (2001), 5, 13, 15, 33–35, 37, 40n34, 44nn88–89 and 94.

 

Tess Mann, “Review of Alexander Nemerov’s The Body of Raphaelle Peale: Still Life and Selfhood, 1812–1824,”
Archives of American Art Journal 41 (2001), 44–45.

 

Alexander Nemerov, The Body of Raphaelle Peale: Still Life and Selfhood, 1812–1824 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001), 8, 70, 72, 74–77, 79–80, 115–16, 124, 143, 146, 154, 189–201, 215n33, 216n46, 233n13, 235n1, pl. 7.

 

Richard Wollheim, Richard Wollheim on the Art of Painting: Art as Representation and Expression (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 194–95, 198nn18, 20, 22.

 

Jochen Wierich, “Review of Books,” William and Mary Quarterly 59 (January 2002), 277–80.

Michaël Amy, “Peter Schuyff at Bill Maynes,” Art in America 90 (July 2002), 94.

 

Paul Staiti, “Five Centuries of Trompe l’Oeil Painting,” American Art Review 14 (September–October 2002), 172.

Holland Cotter, “Playing Tricks with Reality and Realism in Washington,” New York Times, October 11, 2002, 35.

 

Eve Zibart, “‘Deceptions’: Tricking the Eye with Cheeky Good Humor,” Washington Post, 25 October 2002, 56.

 

Di Gloria Vallese, “L’Arte dell’Inganno,” Antiquariato (Milan), no. 258 (October 2002), 102–3 (as Venere che Sorge dal Mare).

 

A[nnalisa] B[ellerio], “Deceptions and Illusions: Five Centuries of Trompe-l’Oeil Painting,” FMR 118 (October–November 2002), 18, 24.

 

Karen Wilkin, “More Than Meets the Eye?” Wall Street Journal, December 4, 2002, D10.

Deceptions and Illusions: Five Centuries of Trompe l’Oeil Painting, exh. cat. (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, in association with Lund Humphries, 2002), 123, 134–35, 282.

 

Frances K. Pohl, Framing America: A Social History of American Art (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002), 177–79.

 

Bennard Perlman, “Fooling the Eye in Washington,” South Florida Times 8 (February 2003), 20–21.

 

Yonna Yapou, “Trompe l’Oeil in Washington,” Apollo 157 (March 2003), 46 (as Venus Rising from the Sea).

 

John Wilmerding, Signs of the Artist: Signatures and Self- Expression in American Paintings (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 49–50.

Wayne Craven, American Art: History and Culture, rev. ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2003), 154.

 

David Rosand, The Invention of Painting in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), xiii, 54, 84–85.

 

Eckhard Hollmann and Jürgen Tesch, A Trick of the Eye: Trompe l’Oeil Masterpieces (Munich: Prestel, 2004), 17–18, 60–61.

 

David C. Ward, Charles Willson Peale: Art and Selfhood in the Early Republic (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004), 164–66, 188, 225n12.

 

Jordi Vigué, Great Masters of American Art (New York: Watson-Guptill, 2004), 64–65 (as After the Bath).

 

Margaret C. Conrads, “Decades-Long Quest for Work by Thomas Cole Concludes with Major Acquisition,” Member Magazine (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art), Spring 2005 (as After the Bath).

 

David Bjelajac, American Art: A Cultural History, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2005), 148–49.

Wolfgang Born, Still Life Painting in America (1947; Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger Publishing, 2005), 27 (as After the Bath).

 

Sarah Blake McHam, “Oedipal Palimpsest,” Source: Notes in the History of Art 27, no. 4 (Summer 2008), 37-38, (repro.), 41-43, 45-46.

 

Lauren Lessing and Mary Schafer, “Unveiling Raphaelle Peale’s Venus Rising from the Sea—A Deception,” Winterthur Portfolio 43, nos. 2/3 (Summer/Autumn 2009), 229-259.

 

Randy Kennedy, “The Koons Collection,” New York Times, February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/arts/design/28koons.html?pagewanted=print.


Winifred Fluck, “Transatlantic Narratives about American Art: A Chapter in the Story of Art History’s Hegelian Unconscious,” Art History 35, no. 3 (June 2012), 554, (repro.), 560, (repro.).


Pascal Bonafoux, Indiscrétion : femmes à la toilette (Paris : Seuil, 2012), 12–13, (repro.) (as Vénus sortant de la mer, une deception).


Markus Brüderlin, ed., Art and Textiles: Fabric as Material and Concept in Modern Art from Klimt to the Present, exh. cat. (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlage, 2013), 55-56, (repro.).


Janine Maleaf and Nicole Archer, Allison Smith: Set Dressing, exh. cat. (Chicago: The Arts Club of Chicago, 2014), 3, 5-6, 5n1, 6n2, (repro.).


“Allison Smith: Set Dressing,” accessed April 26, 2016, The Arts Club of Chicago, http://www.artsclubchicago.org/exhibition/allison-smith-set-dressing/


Paul Hills, John Onians, and Iwona Blazwick, Freefall: Liz Rideal, exh. cat. (Philadelphia: Gallery 339, 2014), 105, (repro.).


William Hauptman, Peindre L’Amérique : Les artistes du Nouveau Monde 1830–1900, exh. cat. (Lausanne : Fondation de l’Hermitage, 2014), 25, (repro.) (as Venus sortant de l’onde, une supercherie).


Lunettes Rouges, “Les hommes ne se lavent donc jamais?” Amateur d’Art « par Lunettes Rouges » (blog), Le Monde, April 22, 2015, http://lunettesrouges.blog.lemonde.fr/2015/04/22/les-hommes-ne-se-lavent-donc-jamais/ (repro.).


Mark D. Mitchell, “What is a Still Life?” in The Art of American Still Life: Audubon to Warhol, exh. cat. (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2015), 112–113, (repro.).


Mark D. Mitchell, “The Meaning of Things,” Antiques 182, no. 5 (September/October 2015), 132–133, (repro.).


Dominic Green, “The Object is the Subject,” Art and Antiques 38, no. 9 (October 2015), 88 (repro.).


Becky Batcha, “Still Life to Die For,” Philadelphia Daily News, October 28, 2015, 21–23.


Ken Johnson, “Four Shows Call Philly Their Home,” New York Times, December 11, 2015, C25.


Nan Chisholm, "'Venus Rising' Contains More than a Female Body," KC Studio, December 15, 2015.


Sarah Rich, “Handmade: The Art of Susan Roth,” in Handmade: The Art of Susan Roth, exh. cat. (Syracuse, New York: Everson Museum of Art, 2015), 14, (repro.).